Minggu, 07 Juli 2013

Motivation: Theory of reinforcement

The reinforcement theory ignores the thought processes that determine behavior. As a result, in isolation determines behavioral outcomes and considers that the objective is to reinforce positive attributes and behavioral characteristics. The reinforcement theory can be seen as manipulative and dogmatic.


Much of reinforcement theory is based on the evaluation of the environment and an individual's reaction to it (the effect). In this regard, as will likely be repeated positive consequences greater extent than negative ones. The positive and negative consequences are personal. For example, some consequences are seen as positive and negative for an individual to another. Therefore, the reinforcement theory can be used to transform the current behavior in future behavior.


Types of reinforcement
There are four types of reinforcement:

    Positive Reinforcement: A reinforcement technique that focuses on increasing the repeatability of a given behavior, through acts of reward that behavior. Normally the positive consequences involve pleasing acts such as compliments, recognition and money. Although this could be interpreted as positive when a punishment. The reaction is entirely personal.
    Negative reinforcement: A reinforcement technique that focuses on increasing the repeatability of a given behavior, by making a person commit to a given behavior to yield to another, are unwanted stimuli. You will be given the choice of accepting the change to new behavior or be subjected to an unwanted behavior. Many managers commit to negative stress, since this appears to be the predominant style booster organizations, especially small ones.
    Punishment: A reinforcement technique that focuses on reducing the repeatability of a given behavior, negative consequences through. The ability of the director to legally sanction the template, put this behavior in the category of punishment, although any change in behavior could be seen in cultural terms as punishment. The reinforcement punishment also carries the notion of power and control.
    Extinction is a reinforcement technique that focuses on reducing the repeatability of a given behavior, receiving or canceling the positive consequences of that behavior. The extinction leaves the control of the individual who is committing the undesired behavior and, therefore, not proactive. As a result, it may not be a change in behavior as the actual reinforcer is the focus on the individual trying to ignore the behavior.

The reinforcement, as a theory, has been applied with greater success than other previous theories. In terms of actual changes in behavior, positive reinforcement, while they are positive, they seem to command respect. However, reducing humans to the status of a machine or animal in terms of the reaction does not generate the notion of organizations that contain people with knowledge, innovation, flexibility and resourced.

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